Sections 12 & 13 (Wednesday): Body paragraphs

What we did in class today  – Students analyzed the descriptive process essay rubric and then they revised their introductions. Sarah A. shared her rough draft of the introduction with the class:

The frog is the only known creature that does not drink water (“Frogs,” n.d.). Rather than drinking water, a frog’s skin absorbs the water. Because of this uniquemethod of hydration, a frog can never be far from a source of water. Consequently, most frogs are found in wet places. In fact, this is where the lifecycle of a frog takes place. The three stages of a frog’s lifecycle consist of the egg stage, the tadpole stage, and the adult stage.

The class observed that Sarah’s rough draft fulfilled the requirements for a descriptive process essay introduction.

  1. Beginning the essay with a little-known fact about frogs attracted the reader’s attention. Also, Sarah was careful to cite the source of her information, both in the body of the paper and on the reference page.
  2. Sarah’s background information was related to her hook and to her thesis sentence.
  3. The thesis sentence lets the reader know Sarah’s specific topic, rhetorical pattern, and main points.
  4. Sarah ensured that there was a logical flow of ideas from one sentence to the next by repeating keywords and phrases from a previous sentence in the sentences that followed it.

Afterwards, students wrote the body paragraphs of their paper. They took care to see that:

  1. The topic sentence indicates which step they are describing chronologically;
  2. The topic sentence refers back to the thesis sentence;
  3. Most importantly, they cited sources for their information.

Shekhah shared her essay, which includes a conclusion, with both Sections 12 and 13.

Cleopatra and the early Egyptians were the first to wear lipstick (How It’s Made – Lipstick, n.d.). They crushed ants and beetles to produce the forerunner of today’s lipstick. Thousands of years later, make up companies were still using insects to color their products. In the 1900’s, they relied on a small insect, the cochineal, to extract carmine dye for the red color common to most lipstick (“Lipstick,” 2016). Although carmine dye is no longer used, the process for making lipstick still consists of two steps: mixing and molding.

The initial step for making lipstick is to mix the components. Lipstick requires several types of wax, a base, and pigments. The manufacturer must choose from a variety of waxes, either carnauba from the Copernicia prunifera plant, or beeswax. Once the wax is chosen, a base is added into a kettle, where the wax and base are melted. The molten mixture is placed on rollers, where a pigment is added slowly so that the pigment is fully crushed. The type of pigment depends upon the color of lipstick that the manufacturer wants to produce.

After the components have been mixed, the final step in the production of lipstick is molding. The manufacturer pours the hot mixture into a filling machine. This piece of equipment contains various molds. As the mixture moves through the machine on a conveyer belt, it cools. At this point, a case is placed around the “stick” of lipstick. Next, the tubes of lipstick are placed in a second machine, a turnaround machine. The tubes pass through a series of “heat guns” to produce the sheen that most women are familiar with when they uncap and roll up a tube of lipstick. The two-part process is now complete.

To conclude, mixing and molding are required to produce a tube of lipstick. The formula for the lipstick includes three components. Once mixed, the lipstick is molded by passing through two machines. It is a much more complicated process than when Cleopatra had her slaves crushing insects so that she could have a cosmetic to beautify her mouth.

Students are to submit the rough draft of their paper – containing the introduction and the body paragraphs – to Turnitin before 11:59 a.m. on Sunday. This is for a mark.


  1. Read pp. 72-94 in Great Essays 5.
  2. If you have not already done so, download the ENGL 100 Essay Templateand save it as your name – Process Essay, for example, Sarah – Process Essay. Be sure not to change the formatting as you type your introduction and body paragraphs into the template. Make sure that your introduction fulfills the requirements for a descriptive process essay introduction and  and that you have added your body paragraphs. Submit your introduction to Turnitin no later than 11:59 a.m. on Sunday, Oct. 16.
  3. Read Achieve3000 article “Is This Duck Too Smart?”and complete the Activity and Thought Question (a one-paragraph summary of the article) before 11:55 p.m. on Friday, Oct. 14. The Thought Question (a one-paragraph summary) and the Activity must be written in MyGUST. The assignment appears as a Turnitin assignment under the week of October 9-15. Read two other Achieve3000 articles of your choice and complete the Activities for them before 11:59 p.m. on Friday, Oct. 14.

Bonus Credit – Reading contest 2 – The contest covers the time period from Saturday, Oct 8, through Friday, Oct 21. This is for 0.5% extra credit. To receive credit, you must score 75 or above on Activities for 10 Achieve3000 articles. Only first attempt scores will count.

What we will do in class on Monday, Oct 17 – We write the conclusion of our paper and revise our essays.

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